MELISSA RAUCH…The Bronze (film)

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The Bronze (film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bronze
The Bronze poster.png

Theatrical release poster
Directed by Bryan Buckley
Produced by Stephanie Langhoff
Written by
Starring
Music by
  • Andrew Feltenstein
  • John Nau
Cinematography Scott Henriksen
Edited by Jay Nelson
Production
company
Distributed by Sony Pictures Classics
Release date
  • January 22, 2015 (2015-01-22) (Sundance)
  • March 18, 2016 (2016-03-18) (United States)
Running time
100 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $3.5 million[1]
Box office $615,816[2]

The Bronze is a 2015 American sports comedy-drama film directed by Bryan Buckley and written by Melissa Rauch and Winston Rauch. It was produced by Mark Duplass and Jay Duplass through their Duplass Brothers Productions banner. The film stars Melissa Rauch, Gary Cole, Thomas Middleditch, Sebastian Stan, Cecily Strong, Haley Lu Richardson and Dale Raoul. It had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 22, 2015.[3] The film was theatrically released on March 18, 2016 by Sony Pictures Classics.

Plot[edit]

Former gymnastics Bronze Medalist Hope Ann Greggory (Melissa Rauch) has been living off her celebrity status in her hometown of Amherst, Ohio, though she is reduced to going through the mail her mailman father delivers for spending money. When her former coach Pavleck (Christine Abrahamsen) suddenly commits suicide, a letter arrives addressed to Hope stating that if she can guide Pavleck’s best student, a young gymnastics star named Maggie Townsend (Haley Lu Richardson) to the Olympics in Toronto, she will receive a $500,000 inheritance.

Unwilling to be overshadowed by Maggie’s success, Hope instead plans to take the money but sabotage Maggie’s training so she can stay on top, initially feeding her junk food and a shake laced with marijuana. Maggie performs so poorly that arrogant Olympic Gold Medalist Lance Tucker (Sebastian Stan), who resents Hope’s celebrity on account of her inferior bronze medal (which she won despite a career-ending injury) threatens to take over as Maggie’s coach. When Hope learns she will forfeit the inheritance money if she does not continue training Maggie, Hope convinces Maggie’s mother to let Maggie stay with her and grudgingly devotes herself to Maggie’s training in earnest. Along the way, she enters a romance with her assistant coach Ben Lawfort (Thomas Middleditch), nicknamed “Twitchy” due to his compulsive blinking habit.

Hope’s efforts eventually pay off when Maggie qualifies for the Olympic Games. However, she is shocked to discover that Coach Pavleck’s gym is in danger of closing because Pavleck had no money to her name when she died. Upon hearing the news, Hope’s father confesses that he was the one who had written the letter, to motivate Hope to do something meaningful with her life. After a heated exchange, Hope gets drunk and ends up having sex with Lance Tucker, leading a heartbroken Ben who witnessed the act to break off their relationship.

Maggie succeeds in winning the gold medal and is celebrated as a local hero in Amherst, but announces her intention to begin training with Lance in Los Angeles instead of staying with Hope. When Maggie fails to show up for an autograph signing at a mall, Hope addresses the disappointed crowd and declares that she will always be Amherst’s hero. She comes up with a plan to finance Pavleck’s gym on her own by selling uniforms and gymnastics lessons to local girls. She then apologizes to Ben and retains him as her assistant coach.

In the epilogue, a caption reveals that Maggie was forced to abandon her gymnastics career after becoming pregnant with Lance’s child.

Cast[edit]

  • Ellery Sprayberry as Young Hope

Production[edit]

On July 9, 2014, it was reported Melissa Rauch, Gary Cole, Thomas Middleditch, Sebastian Stan, Cecily Strong and Haley Lu Richardson had all been cast in the film, as well as that Stephanie Langhoff would produce the film under the Duplass Brothers Productions banner.[4]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography on the film began on July 4, 2014 in Amherst, Ohio.[5] On July 7, the crew was spotted filming at Pikewood Manor in Elyria, Ohio.[6] Production on the film concluded on July 26, 2014.[7] In an interview after Sundance, Rauch stated that she and Buckley trimmed scenes and restored some original story ideas for a new theatrical version.[8]

Release[edit]

In July 2014, Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions acquired international distribution rights to the film.[9] The film had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 22, 2015.[10][11] Shortly after, Relativity Media acquired distribution rights to the film.[12] The film was originally scheduled for release in July 2015, and October 2015.[13] In September 2015, it was pulled from the schedule.[14] The same month, Sony Pictures Classics acquired U.S distribution rights instead, and it was announced that Stage 6 Films would distribute the film internationally.[15] The film was to be released in a limited release on March 11, 2016,[16] but was delayed a week to March 18, 2016 in favor of a wide release then.[17]

Reception[edit]

The Bronze received generally negative reviews from critics. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a rating of 32%, based on 84 reviews, with an average rating of 4.8/10. The site’s consensus reads, “Enthusiastically unpleasant and mostly unfunny, The Bronze fails to stick the landing – or much else along the way.”[18] On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating, the film has a score of 44 out of 100, based on 31 critics, indicating “mixed or average reviews”.[19]

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List of The Who tours and performances

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List of The Who tours and performances

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is an index of performances and tours by The Who. Click each year for full details, including history, setlists, and performance dates.

Year(s) Details
1962–1963 Then known as The Detours, Roger Daltrey, Pete Townshend, and John Entwistle perform with varying personnel in and around the London area.
1964 The group becomes The Who (and for a short period, The High Numbers), performing strictly in England. In May, drummer Keith Moon joins Daltrey, Townshend, and Entwistle, completing the band’s classic lineup. They release their first two singles, “Zoot Suit/I’m the Face” (as The High Numbers) “I Can’t Explain“.
1965 The band performs mostly in the United Kingdom, with a few dates in Paris and a short tour of Sweden and Denmark. Supported releases include “Anyway, Anyhow, Anywhere” and My Generation (album and single).
1966 Performances mostly in the United Kingdom, with various short tours around Europe. Supported releases include “Substitute“, “I’m a Boy“, and A Quick One.
1967 Performances in the United Kingdom and Europe, as well as the band’s first trips to North America. Supported releases include “Pictures of Lily” and The Who Sell Out.
1968 Dates in the United Kingdom and tours of Australia/New Zealand and North America. Supported releases include The Who Sell Out and “Magic Bus“.
1969 Various dates in the United Kingdom and three separate trips to North America; the group also performs its first opera house shows later in the year in support of Tommy.
1970 Opera house dates in Europe, as well as various dates and tours of the United Kingdom and the United States. Supported releases include Tommy and Live at Leeds, the latter recorded in February.
1971 A series of performances at the Young Vic in London for the Lifehouse project, as well as tours of the United Kingdom and the United States supporting Who’s Next.
1972 A five-week European tour promoting Who’s Next.
1973 One TV live special in the Netherlands early in the year, with tours of England and North America later in the year in support of Quadrophenia.
1974 A tour of France, sporadic dates in England, and four shows in New York, supporting Quadrophenia.
1975 Tours of the United Kingdom and North America supporting The Who By Numbers.
1976 Two tours of North America and sporadic dates in the United Kingdom and Europe, supporting The Who By Numbers. The group’s last tours with Keith Moon.
1977–1978 Two special performances in London filmed for The Kids Are Alright rockumentary, marking Keith Moon’s last performances before his death.
1979 New drummer Kenney Jones and keyboardist John “Rabbit” Bundrick join the band for a brief run of shows throughout Europe in the summer and fall and the New York metro area in September. These shows serve to reestablish the Who as a band. In the late autumn, the band undertake a short tour of the Midwest and Northeast promoting The Kids Are Alright and Quadrophenia films. Eleven fans die prior to a December 3 show in Cincinnati.
1980 European warm-up dates and two tours of North America, supporting Who Are You.
1981 Tour of the United Kingdom and appearance on the German TV program Rockpalast, supporting Face Dances.
1982 Two warm-up shows in Birmingham, England, followed by two tours of North America, supporting It’s Hard. Tim Gorman serves as the keyboardist for the year, while the group intends at the time for this to be their last tour. The live album Who’s Last is recorded in North America.
1985 and 1988 The band reunites for short performances at Live Aid in 1985 and again for the 1988 BPI Awards, their last appearances with Kenney Jones.
1989 Reunion tours of North America and England with drummer Simon Phillips and several other supporting musicians and singers, including lead guitarist Steve Bolton. The live album Join Together and part of the Tommy and Quadrophenia Live DVD results.
1996–1997 The group reunites again for a charity show in Hyde Park with drummer Zak Starkey and a number of other support musicians for a full-scale performances of Quadrophenia; tours of North America and Europe follow. Part of the Tommy and Quadrophenia Live DVD is recorded.
1999 The band plays as a five-piece for the first time since 1982, including two acoustic shows for the Bridge School Benefit and two charity shows in Chicago, followed by two Christmas shows in London. The live albums The Vegas Job and Blues to the Bush are recorded.
2000 Tours of the United States and England, the last charity date in at the Royal Albert Hall in London released as a live album and DVD.
The Concert for New York City The group plays four songs at the benefit concert in New York following the September 11, 2001 attacks.
2002 Five shows in England early in the year mark the group’s final performances with John Entwistle. A North American tour commences at the Hollywood Bowl with bassist Pino Palladino a few days after Entwistle’s death. The Encore Series 2002 includes all but two shows from the North American tour.
46664 The group plays five songs at the charity concert at Green Point Stadium in Cape Town, South Africa for the campaign against AIDS in Africa.
2004 A series of dates in the United Kingdom and the United States in addition to the band’s first trip to Japan and their first shows in Australia since 1968. Supporting the Then and Now compilation album, which included two new songs. Shows are chronicled in the Encore Series 2004.
2005 Charity acoustic performance in New York and an appearance at Live 8, the latter with bassist Damon Minchella and drummer Steve White filling in for Pino Palladino and Zak Starkey.
2006–2007 Tours of the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States, supporting Endless Wire. Shows are chronicled in the Encore Series 2006 and 2007
2008–2009 Various shows in England and the United States as well as tours of North America, Japan, and New Zealand/Australia.
2010 The band is the featured act for the Super Bowl XLIV Halftime Show. They also perform Quadrophenia for their Teenage Cancer Trust concert in London. They also perform at Capital FM‘s second annual Summertime Ball concert at Wembley Stadium, also in London and at the 2010 FIFA World Cup launch concert at Orlando Stadium, Soweto, South Africa.
2011 A short performance in London for the Killing Cancer charity.
2012-2013 The Who tour North America for the first time since 2008, (their first appearance in North America since their Super Bowl XLIV performance. They perform Quadrophenia in its entirety, as well as an encore set of Who classics such as Who Are You, Behind Blue Eyes, Pinball Wizard, The Kids Are Alright, Baba O’Riley, Won’t Get Fooled Again, and Tea & Theatre. Daltrey and Townshend are once again joined by drummer Zak Starkey, bassist Pino Palladino, guitarist and vocalist Simon Townshend, as well as first-time touring members Chris Stainton (keyboards), Loren Gold (keyboards/backing vocals), Frank Simes (musical director, keyboards, backing vocals, percussion), and a 2-piece horn section. Los Angeles-based rock/soul band Vintage Trouble supported the first leg of the tour.
2014-2015 The group undertakes its “long goodbye” with its first ever appearance in the United Arab Emirates followed by a UK leg. 2015 sees dates in Europe and two long legs in North America. The personnel from the previous tour is retained, minus the horn section.
2016 A continuity of The Who Hits 50! Tour. This new tour was announced on May, 3rd 2016. Concerts in UK, and Europe. The personnel from the previous tour is retained.

The Purge: Election Year

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The Purge: Election Year

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Purge: Election Year
The Purge Election Year.png

Theatrical release poster
Directed by James DeMonaco
Produced by
Written by James DeMonaco
Starring
Music by Nathan Whitehead
Cinematography Jacques Jouffret
Edited by Todd E. Miller
Production
companies
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date
  • July 1, 2016 (2016-07-01) (United States)
Running time
109 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $10 million[2]
Box office $118.6 million[2]

The Purge: Election Year is a 2016 American dystopian action horror film written and directed by James DeMonaco and starring Frank Grillo, Elizabeth Mitchell and Mykelti Williamson. A sequel to the 2014 film The Purge: Anarchy, it is the third installment of the The Purge series.

The film was released on July 1, 2016 and grossed over $118 million, becoming the highest-grossing film of the series.[3]

Plot[edit]

In 2022, during the events of the first film, a masked purger taunts a young woman (Cristy Coco) and her family. He then tells them they are going to play one final Purge game, called “Mommy’s Choice.” When she refuses, the man moves slowly towards the family as they struggle.

Eighteen years later, in 2040, two days before the Purge, riots break out all over Washington, D.C., claiming that the New Founding Fathers are using the Purge to help their economic agenda; likely thanks to the last film. The events make a great effect on the upcoming Presidential election. Charlie Roan (Elizabeth Mitchell), a Senator, is gaining ground over the NFFA’s candidate, Minister Edwidge Owens (Kyle Secor). It is revealed that she is the young woman from the beginning, and that she alone was spared by the masked purger. The NFFA, headed by Caleb Warrens (Raymond J. Barry), view Roan as a threat to their rule and plan to use the upcoming Purge to eliminate her from play. Meanwhile, Roan and Owens attend a debate and, while Owens states how America’s crime rates are lowering, Roan gets a standing ovation after she declares the Purge only serves to eliminate the poor and benefit the rich and powerful, after which she then breaks security protocol, by stepping into the audience. At a convenience store, owner and proprietor Joe Dixon (Mykelti Williamson), assistant Marcos (Joseph Julian Soria), and their friend, EMT Laney Rucker (Betty Gabriel), watch the coverage on television. While Joe and Laney believes that Roan may not have a chance, Marcos replies that she would win and make changes.

On March 20, the day before the Purge, the NFFA revokes the Purge rule that protects ranking 10 government officials, appearing to attempt to regain public favor, but is actually a front to kill Roan. That same day, Joe and Laney confront a teenage shoplifter named Kimmy (Brittany Mirabile) and her friend (Juani Feliz) both attempting to steal a candy bar. Later, an enraged Joe discovers that his Purge insurance rates have been raised beyond his affordability, prompting him to stake out and guard his store. Roan decides to wait out the Purge from her unsecured home in order to secure the popular vote of the common people. Her head of security, former police sergeant Leo Barnes (Frank Grillo), initially disagrees with the idea but accepts her reasons. He then revamps security and has Roan’s house re-secured with new barricades and surrounded by secret service agents and SWAT snipers standing watch outside, with his partners Chief Couper (Ethan Phillips) and Eric Busmalis (Adam Cantor) as well as three more secret service agents partly supervising the event from indoors. Meanwhile, a group of South African tourists deplaning and claiming their baggage at Dulles Airport are interviewed by a news anchor wherein their response is to join the Purge. News of airports across America flooding with more tourists traveling to the United States to witness or join the Purge make the press dub them as “Murder Tourists”.

After Purge Night commences, Joe and Marcos repel an attack by the teenage shoplifters, injuring Kimmy. Laney and her partner Dawn (Liza Colón-Zayas) patrol the city in a heavily modified ambulance, rendering medical care to the wounded. Roan and Barnes are betrayed by Couper and Busmalis, who signal a Neo-Nazi paramilitary force led by Earl Danzinger (Terry Serpico) and secretly let them into the household, having killed all the secret service agents and SWAT snipers. As the troops assassinate the three remaining secret service agents, Barnes manages to get Roan to safety, but is wounded in the process. He detonates a bomb in the house, killing Couper, Busmalis, and a few troops. Navigating through the hostile streets of Washington D.C. to seek safer shelter, Roan and Barnes are ambushed and taken captive by a group of Russian Murder Tourists. While the group taunts them, Marcos spots the commotion, prompting him and Joe to leave the store’s roof and rescue the duo. They shoot the group dead and take Barnes and Roan to Joe’s store. Roan converses with the two while Marcos tries to tend to Barnes’ wound. As Barnes and Joe get into a light argument, Marcos then witnesses the teenage shoplifters returning in two groups, causing Joe to call Laney and Dawn for backup, who can’t respond immediately as they are treating a teenage boy named Rondo (Jared Kemp). As Barnes, Roan, Joe and Marcos prepare to defend themselves, Laney and Dawn arrive and run over Kimmy and her friend with their ambulance. Laney then guns down the other shoplifters before finishing off a heavily wounded Kimmy with a point-blank headshot. The group then leave the store for a safer hideout.

With all seven safe in the ambulance, the group is ambushed by a helicopter piloted by Danzinger, who end up killing Rondo. The surviving six then seek refuge underneath a highway overpass wherein Barnes deduces they were found because the bullet in his chest is a tracker. After he extracts the bullet, the group is confronted by members of the Crips but when Joe gives the gang’s trademark whistle call (revealing that he was once their member), the Crips calm. Their leader asks the group to tend to his heavily injured “boy” to which the group agrees. In return for the group’s actions, the Crips plant the bullet in another area to trick the paramilitary forces after telling the former to leave. When two of Danzinger’s ground team members find the bullet, the Crips emerge from hiding and eliminate them.

Barnes, Roan, Joe, Laney, Dawn, and Marcos are led to a hideout beneath a hospital protected by anti-Purge rebels led by Dwayne Bishop (Edwin Hodge) where volunteer doctors and nurses administer to wounded Purge victims while other professionals supply food, water, and medicines. Joe, Marcos, and Laney decide to go back to the store, but are forced to turn back after spotting several NFFA death squad trucks heading to the hideout, prompting Laney to report to Dawn. Meanwhile, Roan discovers the rebels are planning to assassinate Owens and tries to dissuade them, as she wants to win the election fairly. They are forced to flee as Dawn alerts the entire hideout of death squad forces arriving. Barnes and Roan survive the hostile alleyways and they meet up again with the ambulance. However, before the group can escape the city, the ambulance is rammed by Danzinger, and Roan is seized.

The senator is delivered alongside a drug addict name Lawrence by Danzinger to an NFFA-captured Catholic cathedral where Owens presides over a midnight Purge mass, while Barnes and the others give chase. The group meet up with Bishop and his team wherein they formulate a plan to rescue Roan by infiltrating the cathedral through a tunnel system. Meanwhile, at the cathedral, Owens has his friend Harmon James (Christopher James Baker), another NFFA loyalist, stab Lawrence as a cleansing ritual for his longtime vice. As he invites the high-ranking members of the NFFA to the altar to sacrifice Roan with Warrens to lead them in the purging, the group and Bishop’s team reaches the cathedral wherein Barnes and his team stealthily eliminates the NFFA Secret Service Agents and get to the choir loft to position.

As Warrens begins to slit Roan’s throat, Marcos assassinates him from the choir loft, instigating a chaos that signals Bishop’s team to invade the cathedral. As the entire congregation begins to disperse and flee in panic, the group fires into the fleeing crowd, killing a vast number of them and leaving only a few, including Owens and James, to escape. A second horde of NFFA secret service agents attempts to eliminate the group but are gunned down by Bishop’s team. After the rebels untie Roan, the group head to the cathedral’s crypt to find Owens. Bishop captures Owens and contemplates killing him, to the protests of Roan and Barnes, while Owens goads him on to kill him. Bishop refrains, and spares him on the condition that Roan wins the election. As Barnes knocks Owens unconscious with Joe watching, the group also discovers a large number of bound and gagged Purge mass sacrifice victims that Owens had stashed in the crypt.

Bishop and his men decide to secure transport to leave the cathedral while Barnes, Roan, Joe, Laney and Marcos attempt to untie the captives. However, they are soon ambushed by Danzinger and his mercenaries, leaving the rebel team killed and Bishop wounded. Barnes rushes out to help him, leaving Roan in the care of Laney and company. Bishop manages to dispatch the remaining mercenaries but is fatally gunned down by Danzinger. Seeing this, Barnes engages Danzinger in a vicious melee combat wherein the former gains the upper hand, killing the latter. As Roan frees some of the last of Owens’ imprisoned victims, James emerges from hiding and fires at the group, killing one of the newly freed victims. After incapacitating Laney and wounding Marcos, he targets Roan but Joe steps in and engages in a furious crossfire with James, finally killing him with a headshot. Before succumbing to his injuries, Joe urges Roan to win the election and tells Marcos and Laney to take care of his store.

On May 26, two months after the Purge, Roan defeats Owens in the presidency by a landslide while Barnes is promoted to head of Secret Service while continuing his service as her chief of security. Marcos and Laney renovate the store and continue to run it in Joe’s honor while they watch the news of Roan’s victory and another report indicating that outlawing the Purge has become Roan’s top priority. Further reports state that many NFFA supporters have reacted to the election results with violent protests in the streets as Marcos looks at an American flag hanging outside the store.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

On October 6, 2014, it was announced that James DeMonaco would be back to write and direct the third film, while producers Sebastian Lemercier, Blumhouse Productions’ Jason Blum, and Platinum Dunes partners Michael Bay, Andrew Form, and Brad Fuller, would also be back.[6] On August 3, 2015, it was announced that Frank Grillo would return for the sequel to play Leo Barnes.[4] On September 10, 2015, more cast was announced, including Betty Gabriel, Edwin Hodge, Kyle Secor, Joseph Julian Soria, Mykelti Williamson, and Elizabeth Mitchell.[5]

Filming[edit]

Shooting began on September 16, 2015. Although a few scenes were filmed in Washington, D.C., most of the movie was shot in Rhode Island, both in its capital Providence,[7] and Woonsocket.[8]

The main streets of Woonsocket was transformed into the near-future Washington, D.C.[9] The NFFA-captured Catholic cathedral where Owens’ Purge mass takes place as well as the cathedral crypt scenes were filmed at the St. Ann’s Church Complex. The Rhode Island State House stood in as the White House and its rotunda as well as some of its interiors such as the Press Room and basement were also used for filming. Numerous landmarks of both Woonsocket and Providence make cameos in the film. The Roan household was shot in another part of Woonsocket and some of the interiors were shot on a soundstage to allow more room for cameras and crew.

Music[edit]

Nathan Whitehead returned to compose the score, having done the music for the first two Purge films. The soundtrack was released on July 1, 2016, to coincide with the release of the film.[citation needed]

Release[edit]

Originally the film was set to be released on Monday, July 4, 2016, to coincide with the Fourth of July, but was moved to Friday, July 1.[10] It was released in the United Kingdom on August 26.

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

The Purge: Election Year grossed $79.2 million in North America and $39.4 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $118.6 million, against a budget of $10 million.[2]

In the United States and Canada, the film opened alongside The BFG and The Legend of Tarzan, and was projected to gross around $25 million in its opening weekend.[11] The film grossed $3.6 million from Thursday night previews, outperforming both of its predecessors (the original‘s $3.4 million in 2013 and The Purge: Anarchys in $2.6 million in 2014).[12] In its opening weekend, the film grossed $31.4 million, landing in between the $34 million debut for the first film and the $29 million opening for the second, and finished third at the box office behind Finding Dory ($41.4 million) and The Legend of Tarzan ($38.6 million). The film grossed a total of $34.8 million over its four-day July 4 holiday frame.[13]

Critical response[edit]

On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 54%, based on 137 reviews, with an average rating of 5.4/10. The site’s critical consensus reads, “It isn’t particularly subtle, but The Purge: Election Years blend of potent jolts and timely themes still add up to a nastily effective diversion.”[14] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 55 out of 100, based on 29 critics, indicating “mixed or average reviews”.[15] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of “B+” on an A+ to F scale.[16]

1960s in music

1960s in music

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The U.K.[edit]

Beatles music[edit]

Main article: Beatles music

The arrival of the Beatles in the U.S., and subsequent appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, marked the start of the British Invasion in which a large number of rock and roll, beat and pop performers from Britain gained massive popularity in the U.S.

The Monkees, another popular band dominating the 60s.

In the late 1950s, a flourishing culture of groups began to emerge, often out of the declining skiffle scene, in major urban centres in the UK like Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham and London. This was particularly true in Liverpool, where it has been estimated that there were around 350 different bands active, often playing ballrooms, concert halls and clubs.[1] Beat bands were heavily influenced by American bands of the era, such as Buddy Holly and the Crickets (from which group the Beatles derived their name), as well as earlier British groups such as the Shadows.[2] After the national success of the Beatles in Britain from 1962, a number of Liverpool performers were able to follow them into the charts, including Gerry & the Pacemakers, the Searchers and Cilla Black. Among the most successful beat acts from Birmingham were the Spencer Davis Group and the Moody Blues. From London, the term Tottenham Sound was largely based around the Dave Clark Five, but other London bands that benefited from the beat boom of this era included the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds and the Kinks. The first non-Liverpool, non-Brian Epstein-managed band to break through in the UK were Freddie and the Dreamers, who were based in Manchester,[3] as were Herman’s Hermits.[4] The beat movement provided most of the groups responsible for the British invasion of the American pop charts in the period after 1964, and furnished the model for many important developments in pop and rock music.

The British Invasion[edit]

Main article: British Invasion

By the end of 1962, the British rock scene had started with beat groups like the Beatles drawing on a wide range of American influences including soul music, rhythm and blues and surf music.[5] Initially, they reinterpreted standard American tunes, playing for dancers doing the twist, for example. These groups eventually infused their original rock compositions with increasingly complex musical ideas and a distinctive sound. In mid-1962 the Rolling Stones started as one of a number of groups increasingly showing blues influence, along with bands like the Animals and the Yardbirds.[6] During 1963, the Beatles and other beat groups, such as the Searchers and the Hollies, achieved great popularity and commercial success in Britain itself.

British rock broke through to mainstream popularity in the United States in January 1964 with the success of the Beatles. “I Want to Hold Your Hand” was the band’s first No. 1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, starting the British Invasion of the American music charts.[7] The song entered the chart on January 18, 1964 at No. 45 before it became the No. 1 single for 7 weeks and went on to last a total of 15 weeks in the chart.[8] Their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show February 9 is considered a milestone in American pop culture. The broadcast drew an estimated 73 million viewers, at the time a record for an American television program. The Beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed by numerous British bands.[9]

During the next two years, Chad & Jeremy, Peter and Gordon, the Animals, Manfred Mann, Petula Clark, Freddie and the Dreamers, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Herman’s Hermits, the Rolling Stones, the Troggs, and Donovan would have one or more No. 1 singles.[7] Other acts that were part of the invasion included the Kinks and the Dave Clark Five.[10] British Invasion acts also dominated the music charts at home in the United Kingdom.[6]

The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll, opening the door for subsequent British (and Irish) performers to achieve international success.[11] In America it arguably spelled the end of instrumental surf music, vocal girl groups and (for a time) the teen idols, that had dominated the American charts in the late 1950s and ’60s.[12] It dented the careers of established R&B acts like Fats Domino and Chubby Checker and even temporarily derailed the chart success of surviving rock and roll acts, including Elvis Presley.[13] The British Invasion also played a major part in the rise of a distinct genre of rock music, and cemented the primacy of the rock group, based on guitars and drums and producing their own material as singer-songwriters.[14]

British blues boom[edit]

Main article: British blues boom

In parallel with Beat music, in the late 1950s and early 1960s a British blues scene was developing recreating the sounds of American R&B and later particularly the sounds of bluesmen Robert Johnson, Howling Wolf and Muddy Waters. It reached its height of mainstream popularity in the 1960s, when it developed a distinctive and influential style dominated by electric guitar and made international stars of several proponents of the genre including the Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, the Yardbirds, Fleetwood Mac and Led Zeppelin.

A number of these moved through blues-rock to different forms of rock music and as a result British blues helped to form many of the subgenres of rock, including psychedelic rock and heavy metal music. Since then direct interest in the blues in Britain has declined, but many of the key performers have returned to it in recent years, new acts have emerged and there have been a renewed interest in the genre.[15]

British psychedelia[edit]

The British band Cream in 1966

British psychedelia emerged during the mid-1960s, was influenced by psychedelic culture and attempted to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs. The movement drew on non-Western sources such as Indian music’s ragas and sitars as well as studio effects and long instrumental passages and surreal lyrics. Established British artists such as Eric Burdon, the Who, Cream, Pink Floyd and the Beatles produced a number of highly psychedelic tunes during the decade. Many British psychedelia bands of the 1960s never published their music and only appeared in live concerts during that time.

North America[edit]

Folk music[edit]

The Kingston Trio, the Weavers, Pete Seeger, Woody Guthrie, Odetta, Peter, Paul and Mary, Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Judy Collins, Leonard Cohen, Joni Mitchell, Carolyn Hester, Phil Ochs, Tom Paxton, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Dave Van Ronk, Tom Rush, Fred Neil, Gordon Lightfoot, Ian and Sylvia, Arlo Guthrie and several other performers were instrumental in launching the folk music revival of the 1950s and 1960s.[16]

Rock[edit]

Folk rock[edit]

The Mamas & the Papas were one of the most prominent American Folk-rock artists of the decade.

Joan Baez and Bob Dylan during the civil rights “March on Washington“, 28 August 1963

By the 1960s, the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement, utilizing traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style, usually on acoustic instruments.[17] In America the genre was pioneered by figures such as Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and often identified with progressive or labour politics.[17] In the early sixties figures such as Bob Dylan and Joan Baez had come to the fore in this movement as singer-songwriters.[18] Dylan had begun to reach a mainstream audience with hits including “Blowin’ in the Wind” (1963) and “Masters of War” (1963), which brought “protest songs” to a wider public,[19] but, although beginning to influence each other, rock and folk music had remained largely separate genres, often with mutually exclusive audiences.[20]

Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals “House of the Rising Sun” (1964), which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation.[21] The folk rock movement is usually thought to have taken off with the Byrds‘ recording of Dylan’s “Mr. Tambourine Man” which topped the charts in 1965.[20] With members who had been part of the cafe-based folk scene in Los Angeles, the Byrds adopted rock instrumentation, including drums and 12-string Rickenbacker guitars, which became a major element in the sound of the genre.[20] Later that year Dylan adopted electric instruments, much to the outrage of many folk purists, with his “Like a Rolling Stone” becoming a US hit single.[20] Folk rock particularly took off in California, where it led acts like the Mamas & the Papas and Crosby, Stills and Nash to move to electric instrumentation, and in New York, where it spawned performers including the Lovin’ Spoonful and Simon and Garfunkel, with the latter’s acoustic “The Sounds of Silence” being remixed with rock instruments to be the first of many hits.[20]

Folk rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period 1967-68, before many acts moved off in a variety of directions, including Dylan and the Byrds, who began to develop country rock.[22] However, the hybridization of folk and rock has been seen as having a major influence on the development of rock music, bringing in elements of psychedelia, and helping to develop the ideas of the singer-songwriter, the protest song and concepts of “authenticity”.[20][23]

Psychedelic rock[edit]

The Doors, 1967

Main article: Psychedelic rock

Psychedelic music’s LSD-inspired vibe began in the folk scene, with the New York-based Holy Modal Rounders using the term in their 1964 recording of “Hesitation Blues“.[24] The first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock were the 13th Floor Elevators from Texas, at the end of 1965; producing an album that made their direction clear, with The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators the following year.[24]

Psychedelic rock particularly took off in California’s emerging music scene as groups followed the Byrds from folk to folk rock from 1965.[25] The Los Angeles-based group the Doors formed in 1965 after a chance meeting on Venice Beach. Although its charismatic lead singer Jim Morrison died in 1971, the band’s popularity has endured to this day. The psychedelic life style had already developed in San Francisco since about 1964, and particularly prominent products of the scene were the Grateful Dead, Country Joe and the Fish, the Great Society and Jefferson Airplane.[25][26] The Byrds rapidly progressed from purely folk rock in 1966 with their single “Eight Miles High“,[27] widely taken[by whom?] to be a reference to drug use.

Psychedelic rock reached its apogee in the last years of the decade. In America the Summer of Love was prefaced by the Human Be-In event and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival,[28] the latter helping to make major American stars of Jimi Hendrix and the Who, whose single “I Can See for Miles” delved into psychedelic territory.[29] Key recordings included Jefferson Airplane’s Surrealistic Pillow and the Doors’ Strange Days.[30] These trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock Festival,[31] which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, but by the end of the decade psychedelic rock was in retreat. The Jimi Hendrix Experience broke up before the end of the decade and many surviving acts, moved away from psychedelia into more back-to-basics “roots rock”, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff laden heavy rock.[25]

Surf rock[edit]

Main article: Surf rock

In the early 1960s, one of the most popular forms of rock and roll was Surf Rock, which was characterized by being nearly entirely instrumental and by heavy use of reverb on the guitars. The spring reverb featured in Fender amplifiers of the day, cranked to its maximum volume, produced a guitar tone shimmering with sustain and evoking surf and ocean imagery.

Duane Eddy‘s “Movin’ and Groovin” is thought by many to be the main contender for laying the groundwork as the first surf rock record, while others claim the genre was invented by Dick Dale on “Let’s Go Trippin’“, which became a hit throughout California. Most early surf bands were formed in during this decade in the Southern California area. By the mid-1960s the Beach Boys, who used complex pop harmonies over a basic surf rock rhythm,[32] had emerged as the dominant surf group and helped popularize the genre.[33] In addition, bands such as the Ventures, the Shadows, the Atlantics, the Surfaris and the Champs were also among the most popular Surf Rock bands of the decade.

Garage rock[edit]

Main article: Garage rock

Garage rock was a raw form of rock music, particularly prevalent in North America in the mid-1960s and is called such because of the perception that many of the bands rehearsed in a suburban family garage.[34][35] Garage rock songs often revolved around the traumas of high school life, with songs about “lying girls” being particularly common.[36] The lyrics and delivery were notably more aggressive than was common at the time, often with growled or shouted vocals that dissolved into incoherent screaming such as the influential Washington based band, The Sonics.[34] They ranged from crude one-chord music (like the Seeds) to near-studio musician quality (including the Knickerbockers, the Remains, and the Fifth Estate). There were also regional variations in many parts of the country with flourishing scenes particularly in California and Texas.[36] The Pacific Northwest states of Washington and Oregon had perhaps the most defined regional sound.[37]

The style had been evolving from regional scenes as early as 1958. “Louie Louie” by the Kingsmen (1963) is a mainstream example of the genre in its formative stages. By 1963, garage band singles were creeping into the national charts in greater numbers, including Paul Revere and the Raiders (Boise),[38] the Trashmen (Minneapolis)[39] and the Rivieras (South Bend, Indiana).[40] In this early period many bands were heavily influenced by surf rock and there was a cross-pollination between garage rock and frat rock, sometimes viewed as merely a subgenre of garage rock.[41]

The British Invasion of 1964-66 greatly influenced garage bands, providing them with a national audience, leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to adopt a British Invasion lilt, and encouraging many more groups to form.[36] Thousands of garage bands were extant in the USA and Canada during the era and hundreds produced regional hits.[36] Despite scores of bands being signed to major or large regional labels, most were commercial failures. It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around 1966.[36] By 1968 the style largely disappeared from the national charts and at the local level as amateur musicians faced college, work or the draft.[36] New styles had evolved to replace garage rock (including blues-rock, progressive rock and country rock).[36] In Detroit garage rock stayed alive until the early ’70s, with bands like the MC5 and the Stooges, who employed a much more aggressive style. These bands began to be labelled punk rock and are now often seen as proto-punk or proto-hard rock.[42]

Blues-rock[edit]

Main article: Blues rock

The American blues-rock had been pioneered in the early 1960s by guitarist Lonnie Mack,[43] but the genre began to take off in the mid-’60s as acts followed developed a sound similar to British blues musicians. Key acts included Paul Butterfield (whose band acted like Mayall’s Bluesbreakers in Britain as a starting point for many successful musicians), Canned Heat, the early Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Johnny Winter, the J. Geils Band and Jimi Hendrix with his power trios, the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Band of Gypsys, whose guitar virtuosity and showmanship would be among the most emulated of the decade.[15] Blues-rock bands like Allman Brothers Band, Lynyrd Skynyrd and eventually ZZ Top from the southern states, incorporated country elements into their style to produce distinctive Southern rock.[44]

Roots rock[edit]

Canadian group, the Band, live in Hamburg

Main article: Roots rock

Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from the excesses of the psychedelic scene, to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences, particularly country and folk music, leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock.[45] In 1966 Bob Dylan spearheaded the movement when he went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde.[46] This, and subsequent more clearly country-influenced albums, have been seen as creating the genre of country folk, a route pursued by a number of, largely acoustic, folk musicians.[46] Other acts that followed the back-to-basics trend were the group the Band and the Californian-based Creedence Clearwater Revival, both of which mixed basic rock and roll with folk, country and blues, to be among the most successful and influential bands of the late 1960s.[47] The same movement saw the beginning of the recording careers of Californian solo artists like Ry Cooder, Bonnie Raitt and Lowell George,[48] and influenced the work of established performers such as the Rolling Stones’ Beggar’s Banquet (1968) and the Beatles’ Let It Be (1970).[25]

In 1968 Gram Parsons recorded Safe at Home with the International Submarine Band, arguably the first true country rock album.[49] Later that year he joined the Byrds for Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968), generally considered one of the most influential recordings in the genre.[49] The Byrds continued in the same vein, but Parsons left to be joined by another ex-Byrds member Chris Hillman in forming the Flying Burrito Brothers who helped establish the respectability and parameters of the genre, before Parsons departed to pursue a solo career.[49] Country rock was particularly popular in the Californian music scene, where it was adopted by bands including Hearts & Flowers, Poco and Riders of the Purple Sage,[49] the Beau Brummels[49] and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band.[50] A number of performers also enjoyed a renaissance by adopting country sounds, including: the Everly Brothers; one-time teen idol Ricky Nelson who became the frontman for the Stone Canyon Band; former Monkee Mike Nesmith who formed the First National Band; and Neil Young.[49] The Dillards were, unusually, a country act, who moved towards rock music.[49] The greatest commercial success for country rock came in the 1970s, with artist including the Doobie Brothers, Emmylou Harris, Linda Ronstadt and the Eagles (made up of members of the Burritos, Poco and Stone Canyon Band), who emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time, producing albums that included Hotel California (1976).[51]

The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound, largely derived from blues rock, but incorporating elements of boogie, soul and country in the early 1970s.[52] The most successful act to follow them were Lynyrd Skynyrd, who helped establish the “good ol’ boy” image of the subgenre and the general shape of 1970s guitar rock.[52] Their successors included the fusion/progressive instrumentalists Dixie Dregs, the more country-influenced Outlaws, jazz-leaning Wet Willie and (incorporating elements of R&B and gospel) the Ozark Mountain Daredevils.[52] After the loss of original members of the Allmans and Lynyrd Skynyrd, the genre began to fade in popularity in the late 1970s, but was sustained the 1980s with acts like .38 Special, Molly Hatchet and the Marshall Tucker Band.[52]

Progressive rock[edit]

Main article: Progressive rock

Progressive rock, sometimes used interchangeably with art rock, was an attempt to move beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types and forms.[53] From the mid-1960s the Left Banke, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and the Beach Boys, had pioneered the inclusion of harpsichords, wind and string sections on their recordings to produce a form of Baroque rock and can be heard in singles like Procol Harum‘s “A Whiter Shade of Pale” (1967), with its Bach inspired introduction.[54] The Moody Blues used a full orchestra on their album Days of Future Passed (1967) and subsequently created orchestral sounds with synthesisers.[53] Classical orchestration, keyboards and synthesisers were a frequent edition to the established rock format of guitars, bass and drums in subsequent progressive rock.[55]

Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract or based in fantasy and science fiction.[56] The Pretty ThingsSF Sorrow (1968) and the Who’s Tommy (1969) introduced the format of rock operas and opened the door to “concept albums, usually telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme.”[57] King Crimson‘s 1969 début album, In the Court of the Crimson King, which mixed powerful guitar riffs and mellotron, with jazz and symphonic music, is often taken as the key recording in progressive rock, helping the widespread adoption of the genre in the early 1970s among existing blues-rock and psychedelic bands, as well as newly formed acts.[53]

Pop[edit]

Chubby Checker performing in 2005

Chubby Checker during the early 1960s popularizes the enduring dance craze the Twist with his hit cover of Hank Ballard & the MidnightersR&B hit “The Twist“.[32]

Gerry Goffin and Carole King become a very influential duo in pop music, writing numerous number one hits including the first song to ever reach number one by a girl group, the Shirelles “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” and the 1962 number one hit, “The Loco-Motion” which was performed by Little Eva.

Sugar Sugar becomes a big hit for the Archies, defining the bubblegum pop genre.

The Monkees were a made for TV band, inspired by the antics of the Beatles in A Hard Day’s Night. Under contractual reasons, the group were not allowed to play their own instruments, which led to many feuds between the band mates and music supervisor, Don Kirshner.

R&B and Soul[edit]

Motown’s the Four Tops performing in New Rochelle, New York, 1967

Main articles: R&B and Soul

Country music[edit]

Johnny Cash onstage in Germany

Main article: Country music

Triumph and great tragedy marked the 1960s in country music. The genre continued to gain national exposure through network television, with weekly series and awards programs gaining popularity. Sales of records continued to rise as new artists and trends came to the forefront. However, several top stars died under tragic circumstances, including several who were killed in plane crashes.

The predominant musical style during the decade was the Nashville Sound, a style that emphasized string sections, background vocals, crooning lead vocals and production styles seen in country music. The style had first become popular in the late 1950s, in response to the growing encroachment of rock and roll on the country genre, but saw its greatest success in the 1960s. Artists like Jim Reeves, Eddy Arnold, Ray Price, Patsy Cline, Floyd Cramer, Roger Miller and many others achieved great success through songs such as “He’ll Have to Go,” “Danny Boy,” “Make the World Go Away“, “King of the Road” and “I Fall to Pieces.”[58] The country-pop style was also evident on the 1962 album Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music, recorded by rhythm and blues and soul singer Ray Charles. Charles recorded covers of traditional country, folk and classical music standards in pop, R&B and jazz styles. The album was hailed as a critical and commercial success, and would be vastly influential in later country music styles. Songs from the album that were released for commercial airplay and record sales included “I Can’t Stop Loving You,” “Born to Lose” and “You Don’t Know Me.”[59]

Among the new artists of the decade, Loretta Lynn was very successful, releasing her first album in 1963 and peaked at #2 on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart. She gained a total of 4 number one albums, and 4 number one hit singles during the decade.

By the end of the decade, the Nashville Sound became more polished and streamlined, and became known as “countrypolitan.” Tammy Wynette, Glen Campbell, Dottie West and Charley Pride were among the top artists adopting this style. While George Jones — by the early 1960s one of country music’s most consistent hitmakers — also recorded countrypolitan-styled music, his background remained pure honky tonk, singing of heartbreak and lonlieness in many of his songs. Also, Marty Robbins proved to be one of the genre’s most diverse singers, singing everything from straight-ahead country to western to pop to blues … and even Hawaiian.

Johnny Cash—who became known as “The Man in Black”—became one of the most influential musicians of the 1960s (and eventually, 20th century). Although primarily recording country, his songs and sound spanned many other genres including rockabilly, blues, folk and gospel.[60] His music showed great compassion for minorities and others who were shunned by society, including prison inmates. Two of Cash’s most successful albums were recorded live in prison: At Folsom Prison and At San Quentin.

During the latter half of the 1960s, Pride — a native of Sledge, Mississippi — became the first African-American superstar in country music, a genre virtually dominated by white artists. Some of his early hits, sang with a smooth baritone voice and in a style meshing honky-tonk and countrypolitan, included “Just Between You and Me,” “The Easy Part’s Over,” “All I Have to Offer You (Is Me)” and a cover version of Hank Williams‘ “Kaw-Liga.” Pride continued to be successful for more than 20 years, amassing an eventual 29 No. 1 hits on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart.

A newly emerging style, which had its roots in the 1950s but exploded in the mainstream during the 1960s, was the “Bakersfield sound.” Instead of creating a sound similar to mainstream pop music, the Bakersfield sound used honky tonk as its base and added electric instruments and a backbeat, plus stylistic elements borrowed from rock and roll. Buck Owens, Merle Haggard and Wynn Stewart were some of the top artists adopting this sound, and by the late 1960s they were among country music’s top selling artists.

Dolly Parton, a native of the Smoky Mountains town of Locust Ridge, Tennessee, gained national exposure on the nationally syndicated program The Porter Wagoner Show. Her mountain-influenced, biographical brand of country and her down-home personality won many fans, and her star power would only begin to rise.

In addition to the syndicated The Porter Wagoner Show, several other television programs were produced to allow country music to reach a wider audience, such as The Jimmy Dean Show in mid-decade. At the end of the decade, Hee Haw began a 23-year run, first on CBS and later in syndication; Hee Haw, hosted by Owens and Roy Clark was loosely based on the comedy series Rowan & Martin’s Laugh In, and incorporated comedy along with performances by the show’s cast or guest performers from the country music field. The Academy of Country Music and Country Music Association awards programs were telecast for the first time in the late 1960s.

The 1960s were marred with tragedy. Johnny Horton, who sang in the saga-song style, was killed in a car accident in 1960. A March 5, 1963, plane crash claimed the lives of Patsy Cline, Cowboy Copas and Hawkshaw Hawkins. Days later, Jack Anglin was killed in a car accident, while Texas Ruby died in a trailer fire in Texas. In July 1964, Jim Reeves lost his life while piloting a plane near Brentwood, Tennessee. Ira Louvin (one half of the Louvin Brothers) was killed in a car accident in 1965. Success overcame several of those tragic deaths, as both Cline and Reeves had many posthumous hits (with previously recorded songs issued after their deaths) and enjoyed strong followings for many years, while Louvin’s brother, Charlie, continued as a successful solo performer for more than 40 years.

The 1960s began a trend toward a proliferation of No. 1 hits on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart, thanks to ever-changing data collecting methods. When the 1960s decade opened, there were but four No. 1 songs topping the chart (five, if one counts Marty Robbins’ “El Paso“), but by the mid-1960s, there were always at least a dozen songs topping the chart annually. In 1967, there were more than 20 songs reaching the top spot for the first time ever in a single calendar year … and that number would only continue to rise during the next 20 years.

Other trends and musical events[edit]

Woodstock Festival, August 1969

Latin America, Spain and Portugal[edit]

Bossa Nova[edit]

Main article: Bossa Nova

This Brazilian musical style, which means “New Trend”, had its origins in the upscale neighbourhoods of Rio de Janeiro. Immensely popular in the early 1960s, it was a fusion of samba and cool jazz. Antonio Carlos Jobim, João Gilberto, and Astrud Gilberto became the best known artists of the Bossa Nova movement. The latter’s The Girl From Ipanema, released in 1964, became the first Bossa Nova song to achieve international acclaim. In 1965, it won a Grammy Award for Best Record of the Year.

Nueva ola[edit]

Main articles: Nueva ola and Uruguayan Invasion

It was during the 60s that rock music began to gain acclaim in Latin America. In Spanish speaking South America musicians who adopted US and British inspired rock, mainly rock and roll, twist and British Invasion music, were collectively labelled as Nueva ola (Spanish for “New Wave”). Argentina, having his own Rock and Roll and British Invasion inspired bands and artist, Sandro de América, Sandro y Los de Fuego[es], Johnny Allon[es], Los Gatos Salvajes, Los Beatniks, Los Buhos, among others.) suffered the Uruguayan Invasion, a series of British Invasion inspired rock bands from Montevideo that moved to Buenos Aires and soon became popular in Argentina Los Shakers, Los Mockers, Los Iracundos. Rock music was during the 60s still largely sung in English, but some bands like Los Mac’s and others mentioned above used Spanish for their songs as well.[61]

Nueva canción[edit]

During the 1960s Nueva Canción emerges and starts to expand its influence. This development is pioneered by the Chileans Violeta Parra and Victor Jara who base many of their songs in folklore, specially cueca. Nueva Canción spreads quickly all over Latin America and becomes closely related to the New Left and the Liberation theology movements. In Francisco Franco‘s Spain Joan Manuel Serrat reaches widespread notability as an exponent of Nueva Canción and of the political opposition.

Salsa[edit]

Even though salsa music began to take form In a New York scene dominated by Cubans and other Latin American communities, Salsa would not become popular all across Latin America until the late 1980s.

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

The 1960s saw increasing interest in how electronic music could solve both compositional and more practical problems. Composers were also absorbing ideas from overseas, such as indeterminacy and electro-acoustic music, and interpreting them in an Australian context to mixed responses from local audiences.

Early in the decade, Bruce Clarke began toying with the new Moog synthesizer. A musicians’ strike led him to create a completely electronic soundtrack for a cigarette commercial in 1963. Innovative film makers, like Arthur Cantrill and Dušan Marek, employed tape manipulation, turntables and extended instrument techniques to create soundtracks for their short films. Avowed amateur and Melbourne physician, Val Stephen, became the first Australian to have electronic music released internationally.

After working amongst the musical avant-garde in Paris, Keith Humble’s return to Australia helped to encourage educational institutions to take electronic music seriously. Humble’s most notably experimental work was his Nunique series. These vast multimedia events featured simultaneous performances by rock bands, string quartets and theatre ensembles, all according to precise flowcharts.

Humble initiated the Melbourne-based Society for the Private Performance of New Music in 1966, providing a supportive performance space for young innovators both in and outside the academy. Among these were the McKimm/Rooney/Clayton trio, who, since the 1964, had been incorporating graphic scores and aspects of serialism into jazz improvization. Jazz was radicalizing at the fringes: John Sangster explored free jazz concepts and Charlie Munro incorporated Eastern musical elements. Syd Clayton would leave jazz behind in pursuit of a new form of experimental music theatre that incorporated chance operations along with sports and games as musical structures.

Young composers, like David Ahern, emerged, initially inspired by ideas of the European avant-garde, and applying them to Australian icons, such as Captain Cook and Ned Kelly. Ahern would travel to Europe later in the 1960s, where he encountered Stockhausen and Cardew, before returning home with further more radical ideas that questioned the very premises of composer and music itself.

Legacy[edit]

It’s difficult to gauge the lasting impact of 1960s music in popular culture. A 2010 European survey conducted by the digital broadcaster Music Choice, interviewing over 11,000 participants, rated the decade rather low, with only 19% declaring it the best tune decade in the last 50 years, while participants of an American land line survey rated the 1960s a bit higher, with 26% declaring it as best decade in music.[62][63]

THE GREAT CHRISTOPHER LEE…DIES AT AGE 93

Director Tim Burton (R) poses with British actor Christopher Lee after Lee was presented with the Fellowship at the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award ceremony at the Royal Opera House in London in this February 13, 2011 file photo.  British actor Christopher Lee, who devoted his long career to portraying horror film villains and later appeared in the blockbuster "Star Wars" and "Lord of the Rings" series, has died at the age of 93. Lee died last Sunday in hospital where he had been undergoing treatment for respiratory problems, British media reports said. Lee's agent, in an emailed statement, said his family "wishes to make no comment".   REUTERS/Luke MacGregor/Files

Director Tim Burton (R) poses with British actor Christopher Lee after Lee was presented with the Fellowship at the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award ceremony at the Royal Opera House in London in this February 13, 2011 file photo. British actor Christopher Lee, who devoted his long career to portraying horror film villains and later appeared in the blockbuster “Star Wars” and “Lord of the Rings” series, has died at the age of 93. Lee died last Sunday in hospital where he had been undergoing treatment for respiratory problems, British media reports said. Lee’s agent, in an emailed statement, said his family “wishes to make no comment”. REUTERS/Luke MacGregor/Files

images80efed7509b9bcf6fbad77bd0b35eeaf3dbbe74e   images  images

Christopher Lee, British actor and man of many roles, has left us.  Lee, best known for his Hammer Horror roles, was 93.  Lee often played the villain in many  movies.  Lee had recurring roles in several movies recently: “Lord Of The Rings,” “The Hobbit” and The “Star Wars” movies.  Lee’s autobiography written in 1977 was called “Tall Dark and Gruesome.”  Lee starred in many films with fellow British actor

untitled Peter Cushing.  A list of movies with Lee and Cushing:

Hamlet (1948)

Moulin Rouge (1952)

The Curse Of Frankenstein (1957)c

Horror Of Dracula (1958)

Hound of The Baskervilles (1959)

The Mummy (1959)

The Gorgon (1964).  Lee played The good guy and Cushing the bad guy in this one.

Dr.  Terror’s House of Horrors (1965) Once again Lee is the good guy and Cushing the protangonist.

The Skull (1965)

She (1965)

Island Of The Burning Damned (1967)

Scream and Scream Again (1970)

One More Time (1970)

The House That Dripped Blood (1971)

I, Monster (1971)

Dracula A.D. 1972 (1972)

The Creeping Flesh (1973)

Horror Express (1972)

Nothing But the Night (1973)

The Santanic Rites Of Dracula (1973)

Arabian Adventure (1979)

House Of Long Shadows (1983)

  Lee Was Knighted.  He will be sorely missed.  EDB